Places in Malaysia Site Map
Malacca or Melaka in Malay Language was declared as 'Historical City' or 'Bandaraya Bersejarah' in Malay Language on 15-Apr-1989. This is because Malacca is the oldest town / city in Malaysia and has the most number of museum in Malaysia. Malaysia came about from the Sultanate of Malacca, started by a Hindu Srivijayan prince.

The Sultanate of Malacca / Melaka
Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembang, Sumatra fled with some of his people from Sumatra after they were attacked by the Javanese, Majapahit empire. He went to Temasek and established himself as a king there but was driven out by Siamese invasion. He then fled to the Malay Peninsula and founded Melaka in 1401.

Melaka is the name of a tree where Parameswara was resting when he was hunting. It was said that while resting under the tree, he saw a mousedeer kicking his dog into the river when the dog tried to attack the mousedeer. He saw it as a good omen that a small, weak deer could managed to overcome the dog. So, Parameswara decided to build his empire on that place and name the place after the tree.

In 1405, Admiral Cheng Ho (Zheng He), a commander of the Chinese Imperial fleet arrived at Melaka on the 1st of his 7 voyages to the Indian Ocean. It was said that Admiral Cheng Ho was sent by the Chinese Emperor of Ming Dynasty to show the strength of his country to gain acknowledgement from other empires. China began to have its presence in Melaka, mostly from imperial fleet and merchants that came to trade. They settled mostly around the Bukit China or Chinese Hill area.

In 1411, Parameswara travelled to China with some 540 followers to meet the Chinese Emperor of Ming Dynasty, Emperor Yong Le. This marked the beginning of a good relationship between Melaka and China.

In 1414, Parameswara converted to Islam when he married a muslim princess of Pasai and changed his name to 'Raja Iskandar Shah' or Sultan Iskandar Shah. This marked the beginning of Islam in the Malay Peninsula and later to Sumatra and Java.

In 1446, Raja Kassim or Sultan Muzaffar Shah declared Islam as the state's religion. In 1446 and 1456, the Siamese tried to invade Melaka but they were warded off by Tun Perak, the most famous of all Bendahara (or now, known as 'Prime Minister') of Melaka.

In 1458, to further improve relationship with the China, Sultan Mansur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477 went to China. He brought an allegedly princess of the Ming Emperor, Hang Li Po back to Melaka and made her his wife. This marked the begining of the expansion of the Peranakan people in Melaka.

The Portuguese Occupation (1511 to 1641)
In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque, a Portuguese attacked Melaka and managed to take over Melaka from Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last sultan of the Sultanate of Melaka. Fort A Famosa or Porta De Santiago was built to defend Malacca from raids by the followers of Sultan Mahmud Shah and others. Christian faith mainly Catholic started to flourish as the Portuguese were and still are mostly Catholics.

St. Paul's Church was built by a Portuguese captain inside A Famosa at the foot of St. Paul Hill and was initially named "Our Lady of The Hill". In 1545, Saint Francis Xavier visited Malacca and tried to get permission to travel to China. In 1548, the 1st school in Malacca, St Paul's College was built by Saint Francis Xavier for the Catholics Portuguese and converts.

The Dutch Occupation (1641 to 1824)
In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese and took over Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. Many landmarks were built during the Dutch occupation such as the Stadthuys or the Red Building, St. John's Fort, St. Peter's Church, Christ Church, and Cheng Hoon Teng but the Dutch was more interested in Indonesia.

In 1824, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty was signed between the Dutch and the British. Malacca and Singapore was given to the British and Bencoolen in Sumatra was given by the British to the Dutch.

The British Occupation (1824 to 1946)
During the British occupation, Malacca was ruled first by the British East India Company from 1826 to 1867 and then as a Crown Colony from 1868 to 1946.

Many landmarks were built by the British. Some of them are Queen Victoria Fountain,

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